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The three types of group messages that you might see are: group iMessage, group MMS, and group SMS. The Messages app automatically chooses the type of group message to send based on you and your recipients' settings, network connection, and carrier plan. For example:

If you and your recipients are using Apple devices and iMessage is turned on, then the group message is sent as an iMessage.



If you send a group message to people who aren't using iMessage, then the message is sent as an MMS or SMS message. See below…


Group iMessage

These messages appear in blue text bubbles, go through Apple instead of your carrier, and are protected by end-to-end encryption. In a group iMessage, everyone can:

Send and receive photos, videos, and audio messages

See all responses from the group

Send and receive message effects, like sketches, animations, bubble effects, and more

Share their location with the group

Give the group a name, add or remove people from the group, mute notifications, or leave the group



Group MMS

These messages appear in green text bubbles and go through your carrier instead of Apple. In a group MMS, everyone can:

Send and receive photos and videos

See all responses from the group

Mute notifications

Group SMS

These messages also appear in green text bubbles and go through your carrier. Group SMS messages don’t support multimedia attachments, like photos or videos. All responses in a Group SMS are sent as individual text messages and the recipients can’t see the other responses from the group.


Export attachments via Messages on all platforms

There’s an easy way to export attachments in bulk, too.

In iOS and iPadOS:

Open the Messages app.

Tap on a conversation.

Tap the avatar or name at the top of the conversation.

Tap the “i” info button.

Swipe down to Photos and tap See All Photos.

Tap Select at the top of the view.

Now you can select multiple photos and tap Save to store them in the device’s camera roll.

You can repeat that action for Screenshots (by tapping the Screenshots button at the top of the view), but there’s no way to access files.


In Messages for macOS, you can save images out to Photos.

In macOS:

Open the Messages app.

Select the conversation.

Click the Details link in the upper-right corner.

Under Photos or Files, you can select one or multiple items.

With Photos, you can Control-click and choose Add to Photos Library.

With Photos and Files, you can drag the selection to the Finder.


Why do you want to download Intagram stuff?
Why write a long-winded post when you can post a picture? Rather than respond to the question “what are you doing?”, why not post a picture of exactly what you’re doing? Isn’t that so much easier and more informative? Pictures convey so much more to the audience. They convey emotions, ideas, sentiments, thoughts, and reality. These are things that you lose through text. Photos bring your audience into your world so intimately that they actually start to believe they are a part of it.

You can also think about photos purely from an interaction standpoint. Think about your Facebook feed. Which posts do you tend to stop and look at more closely? Those with text or those with photos? I know I am all about the photos. Most of the time, I skim text but I stop and look at photos. So if your entire feed is photos, you are capitalizing on this phenomenon of photo domination.

And you never know when the stuff you want will go away. This way you can control when you don't want it anymore.

So what do we need to download Intagram stuff? Not a lot, just follow the below instructions.

Click on the below link to download Instagram stuff. This is the best and easiest way I know to get started for FREE to do that:

https://www.4kdownload.com/products/product-stogram?r=free_license

Why use them, because they provide timely updates, and seem to take security seriously. Plus, their apps are very easy to use. So what are you waiting for, click the above link and get started for FREE.
Make life easier with these Mac shortcuts and tips.


The 2019 MacBook Pro

Whether you're new to the Mac world or have been an avid user for years, there are lots of little tricks and shortcuts many people don't know about that can make your experience with these devices more productive. It doesn't matter if you're running MacOS Catalina or a prior version of the operating system (though, you should download Catalina for a number of reasons) -- you can still do all of these simple things to stay organized and get more done on your MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, iMac or Mac Pro.

Here are 10 tips and tricks for things that you may not have known your Mac could do. 

1. Turn your desktop folders into emoji
Make your desktop folder icons easier to differentiate (and just more fun) by turning each folder into the emoji of your choice. Here's how to do it: 
1. Create a folder on your desktop by clicking File > New folder.
2. Do a Google Image search for the emoji you want (e.g. "heart emoji" or "star emoji").
3. Drag the image you want to your desktop.
4. Double-click the image to open it in Preview.
5. To make the image transparent, press the markup icon (it looks like a magic wand), click the background of the image so that a moving outline appears around it and click Edit > Cut.
6. Click the markup icon again, and click and drag a box around the emoji. 
7. Click edit, select all. Press Command + C.
8. Go back to the original folder you created on your desktop and right-click on it.
9. Click Get Info. 
10. In the screen that pops up, click the blue folder icon and press Command + V. You should see your emoji appear.



iMac Pro

2. Bypass and reset your password when you get locked out
Forgot your Mac password? Don't worry -- MacOS has two built-in, easy ways to log back into your Mac. 
Recovery Mode:
1. Turn off your Mac.
2. Press and hold Command + R, and then press the power button. Hold in Command + R until you see a progress bar appear below the Apple logo on the screen. Your Mac will now be in Recovery Mode.
3. In the menu bar, click Utilities > Terminal. A window will pop up. Type "resetpassword" as one word, without quotes, and press Return. 
4. Close the Terminal windows and you will find the Reset Password Tool. You'll see a list of all user accounts on your Mac -- if you reset the password for your account, you'll have to set a new one for every other user, too.
Apple ID: 
1. After entering the wrong user password a few times, you might be asked if you want to reset it with your Apple ID. Or you can click the question mark icon in the password text field, followed by the arrive icon, to call up the same process.
2. Enter your Apple ID email address and password. A pop-up alert will let you know that a new keychain that stores your passwords will be created. Click OK. 
3. Follow the rest of the prompts to create a new password for your user account.



3. Do calculations and currency conversions in Spotlight

Spotlight is one of the more underrated Mac features -- when you know how to use it, it's a useful tool for getting around your computer faster, and without using a mouse. For example, you can use Spotlight as a calculator and to convert currency. 
To open Spotlight, click the magnifying glass icon at the top left of the menu bar, or tap Command + Space bar on your keyboard. To use it as a calculator, simply type what you want to calculate into the search bar (for example, "919+1246/2") and the answer will appear as the search result, which you can copy and paste. 
To use Spotlight as a currency converter, type the amount you'd like to convert, with its currency symbol (for example, $100 or £100) and the search results will bring up conversion rates in different currencies, with data drawn from Yahoo. 
Read more: 12 Mac search tips from a Spotlight addict

4. Sign documents in the Preview or Mail app

If you're emailed a PDF to sign, you don't have to go through the tedious process of printing it out, signing it and scanning it back in -- your Mac allows you to sign documents directly on your device in the Preview or Mail app. 
You can do this a number of different ways in different apps and programs, including saving a scanned copy of your signature on a piece of white paper and adding it in as an image in a given document. However, if you are working in the Mail app here's what to do: 
1. Drag the PDF into a email message, hover over the PDF, click the button with a down arrow at the top right and click Markup. 
2. Click the box at the top that looks like a signature. 
3. Click Trackpad to sign your name with your mouse on the trackpad, or click Camera sign your name on white paper and take a photo of it with your computer's webcam. You can also save a signature to reuse. 

5. Type emoji from your keyboard

Emoji aren't only for texts on your phone. In almost any web page or app (including Google Docs and Microsoft Word), go to the menu bar and click Edit > Emoji & Symbols. A box with emoji will appear, and you can add any to the page you're working on. Or, you can use a keyboard shortcut: Control + Command + Space. 


Apple Mac Pro: Expensive, sleek

6. Use Split View to see two apps side by side, without resizing

With Split View, your Mac allows you to work in two apps side by side without having to resize them, and without the distraction of other apps. 
1. In MacOS Catalina, go to the upper left corner of a window, and either hover your mouse over or click and hold the green full-screen button. 
2. Choose Tile Window to Left of Screen or Tile Window to Right of Screen from the menu, and the window will fill that side of the screen. In past versions of MacOS (you need OS X El Capitan or later to use Split View), click and hold the green full-screen button, and drag the window to the left or right of the screen to tile it. 
3. To get out of split screen, hit the Esc key on your keyboard. 
Read more: 10 Mac apps everyone should be using

7. Create a keyboard shortcut for anything you want

You're probably familiar with the Mac keyboard shortcuts Apple uses, like Command+C to copy text and Command+V to paste it. But you can also create your own shortcut to access any menu option you like. 
1. Go to System Preferences > Keyboard > Shortcuts > App Shortcuts, and click the + icon. 
2. A box will pop up allowing you to choose the application you want, the name of the menu command and the keyboard shortcut of your choice.
3. After you're done, tap Add. 

8. Make volume adjustments more granular 

Sometimes the difference between each volume step on your Mac is larger than you think it will be, and your music, video or podcast goes from too quiet to too loud in one tap. If you want to make the volume increments smaller, hold down Option+the up arrow as you hit the increase or decrease volume key. This will bring up the Sound box, which will let you adjust the volume in a more granular way. 

9. Rename a group of files at the same time

You don't have to individually rename a bunch of files or photos on your Mac. Instead, go to Finder and select the group of documents or photos you want to rename by clicking one, holding down Shift and clicking the others. Right-click, and scroll down to the option that says Rename X items. Or, after selecting them, click the cog icon and click Rename X items from there. Then, you'll be able to add text, replace text or apply a format like "Sarah's birthday party" with a number for each photo. 

10. Hide or customize the menu bar

Don't want to see the Menu bar on your Mac unless you need it? Go to System Preferences > General, and click Automatically hide and show the menu bar.    
If you want to keep your Menu bar and customize it, you can hold Command and drag the icons into different places, or remove them all together. 


This is the layout of the previous Mojave startup volume:


This is a layout of the original Catalina startup volume:


This is the layout of the latest version Catalina startup volume:


This latest version provides much more protection of your data as the data is separated to its own volume, keeping the system files on their own seperated volume.

Here is just a peak at what the latest version of Catalina upgrade has to accomplish:
For the Catalina installer to complete successfuly, it has to do the following:

rename your existing startup volume with ” – Data” appended;

remove all existing system folders and files from that new Data volume;

change the folder layout on the Data volume;
create a new System volume, and install the new system there;

set the volume types of the System and Data volumes, and convert them into an APFS Volume Group;

create new firmlinks to connect the two volumes.

The installer also has to update the firmware in your Mac, and replace the contents of the Recovery volume.

With all that and more, this is why it is so important to make sure the existing startup hard drive and system is in tip top shape, before upgrading. Also, make sure you have a backup, just in case.

Is it worth upgrading, You betcha...


If you’ve updated your Mac to macOS Catalina, then you’ll notice a specific app missing; iTunes. You’ve probably heard that iTunes was going away, but now that it’s truly gone, you’ll have to manage your devices differently.
You might have used iTunes to back up or restore your iPhone, sync specific items with your iPad, or simply manage your devices.
The bad news is that you can’t use iTunes on Mac to do this anymore. But the good news is that there is another way and it’s super easy.
Here’s how to use Finder instead of iTunes on Mac to manage your devices.

Connect your device to Mac
Grab your lightning cable and connect your device to your Mac. If it doesn’t open automatically, open Finder using the button your Dock or the menu bar.
Now you should see your connected device in the Finder sidebar. Go ahead and click it and we’ll get started with what you can do!

General device management
At the top of the Finder window, you’ll see your device’s name, storage, and battery level. Right beneath, you have tabs for General and then various media types like Music, Movies, TV Shows, Files, and more.

The General tab gives you a basic maintenance area for your device. And it should look quite similar to what you used to see in iTunes. You have three sections for Software, Backups, and Options.

You can also see the storage used on your device by moving your cursor over the sections of the colored bar at the bottom and have a convenient Sync button.



So, managing your device in Finder is pretty close to doing it in iTunes.

Syncing media
As you move through and click the various tabs to the right of General, you can see your other items just like before and sync what you like. Make your picks and click the Apply button at the bottom of that section to sync.



Keep in mind that if you’re using iCloud for things like your music library or calendar and contacts, you’ll see a message that you’ll need to disable that on your device in order to sync with your Mac.




When you finish with everything you need to do with your device, click the Eject button next to it in the sidebar before you unplug your cable.



Will you miss iTunes for device management?
Managing, syncing, and backing up your device is just as easy with Finder as it was with iTunes.
Possible Relocated Items in Catalina

When you upgrade to Catalina, one of its more curious habits is leaving a folder in /Users/Shared, with an alias to it on your Desktop, named Relocated Items. This is normally put in place to welcome you when you first log into your newly upgraded system. According to Apple (https://support.apple.com/en-gb/guide/mac-help/mchl8ae423a3/mac), when you upgrade “all your files and data are carefully reviewed to ensure they’re valid and authorised, undamaged, and in the correct locations.” This Relocated Items folder is supposed to contain those which “couldn’t be moved to their new locations” on the System and Data volumes, and with them is a PDF document explaining what to do about them.

If you’re really lucky, the same can happen again, during a Catalina update, or when upgrading from a Catalina beta version. If there’s already a Relocated Items folder in the /Users/Shared folder, then you’ll be pleased to know that the existing folder will be renamed Previously Relocated Items, and the newly relocated items placed in a new folder named Relocated Items.

Why are there Relocated Items?
During the installation of Catalina, macOS transforms your regular single boot volume into two: the new read-only System volume, and its companion Data volume which contains all the writeable files such as your Home folder. These two volumes make up a Volume Group, which is rooted in the System volume. As that’s read-only, its folder layout is fixed, unlike that of your old boot volume.

(NOTE: Right click to open a full size of the images)

This converts a Mojave volume which looks roughly like this:



together with anything your or others might have added, into the new root System volume, which looks like this:



Although the installer knows where to put most things, there are often strays and unexpected files and folders. You might, for example, have created a new top-level folder, or one of your apps might have written a file somewhere outside of the usual places.

The Relocated Items folder should contain all those waifs and strays found during volume conversion. Rather than silently deleting them, or hiding them somewhere that you won’t find them, the Catalina installer puts them all together in the one folder.

What’s in Relocated Items?
What’s in this folder varies a great deal. In my case, there were a few meaningless bits of detritus from Apple apps. Some users find large Photos libraries, apps, and all sorts of other files. So the first thing you should do is look thoroughly inside the Relocated Items folder, and read the accompanying PDF.

Chances are that you’ll be none the wiser. The relocated items will mean nothing to you, and you’ll be able to put them in the Trash and empty it. If there are important files there, you should obviously rescue them and find them a new home on the Data folder.
Some users have reported that certain files which get put in the Relocated Items folder are protected by SIP, and can’t be trashed. If that’s the case, you should be more attentive to those items, and this suggests that there might be a problem with your Catalina installation. All system files protected by SIP should be relocated correctly, the great majority moving onto Catalina’s new System volume.

If you’re in any doubt what a relocated file is, or why it’s there, leave it for the time being. Come back a bit later and see if you can then make an informed decision about what to do with it. Don’t rush to reboot in Recovery Mode, disable SIP, and do all sorts of other manoeuvres to remove all protected files, for instance. If in doubt, leave the file(s) in that folder and ask for advice.
If you’ve set up or restored an Apple device recently and have two-factor authentication enabled on your Apple ID, you may have seen a message during configuration that defies your understanding of how Apple maintains device privacy and account security.

The message reads something like, “Enter Mac Password. Enter the password you use to unlock the Mac ‘name here’. This password protects your Apple ID, saved passwords, and other data stored in iCloud. Your password is encrypted and cannot be read by Apple.” The prompt might instead ask for your iPhone or iPad passcode.



I had to take a photo of this unusual login screen, as it was during setup and screen capture wasn’t available.

Doesn’t this seem contradictory, confusing, and just plain wrong? Why would Apple ask for the password or passcode for one of your other devices? Could it be some sort of scam? What exactly is going on here?

I encountered this issue, as did Take Control publisher Joe Kissell, in preparing the iOS 13 and iPadOS 13 revision to my long-running networking and security book, Connect and Secure Your iPhone and iPad. (It has a new, shorter title in this release, and is already updated for iOS 13.1—check it out if you’re looking for more information about iOS networking, privacy, and security.)

While I had heard of this prompt happening once last year, I had never seen it myself. Now I’ve figured out what is going on by reviewing Apple’s documentation and deducing the missing pieces. The short answer is that this prompt is actually Apple working to protect your security, and the explanation is accurate. But it’s not sufficiently detailed—that would require screens of text—to explain what’s going on. Here’s the skinny.

iCloud Stores Two Kinds of Secured Data for You
All the data that’s synced between your devices via iCloud is encrypted while in transit  (generally using HTTPS) and at rest on Apple’s servers. Some of it is available in decrypted form if you were to access it via iCloud.com. For that subset, Apple maintains the encryption keys that protect the data when it’s at rest, and it could turn over that data if forced to by law enforcement.

Apple discloses which data is stored with encryption keys it possesses. In very rare circumstances, someone who compromised Apple’s keys or server security could extract that iCloud.com-accessible information from a transmission or from iCloud. It’s extremely unlikely, but it’s not strictly impossible.

This data could also be at risk in a successful phishing attack. Phishing requires only that an attacker fools someone into thinking they are entering their credentials into a legitimate site that is, instead, a man-in-the-middle. There are many kinds of phishing attacks, one severe type of which involves obtaining fraudulently issued HTTPS certificates that can have all the trappings of a legitimate and secure site.

The attacker could then simply use your login name and password to initiate an attempt to log in to iCloud, even triggering Apple to send you an extra login token used for two-factor authentication, which, if you entered it on the phishing site, could be used by the attacker at iCloud.

Apple users have been phished, of course, although as far as I know, Apple has never suffered from a fraudulent certificate attack. Some visitors to Google sites were phished in this way on multiple occasions several years ago. Since then, certificate-issuing and -tracking procedures and the way browsers check for legitimately issued documents have substantially reduced but not eliminated that particular risk.
Because of phishing risks, Apple has chosen to protect some data that it views as highly secure or very private with end-to-end encryption that prevents Apple from knowing anything about the contents of the synced data. Apple doesn’t possess any of the keys required to decrypt this data passing through its servers. Instead, those keys reside only on individual iPhones, iPads, and Macs.

There’s a full list of end-to-end encrypted services at Apple’s iCloud security overview page, but they include iCloud Keychain, Screen Time information, Health data, Wi-Fi passwords, the People album in Photos, and the new Find Me service’s crowdsourced location information. There are also likely other bits of data that facilitate device-to-device interactions.

As a result, you cannot view these categories of data at iCloud.com, only using your devices. In essence, iCloud acts as a sync service with zero knowledge about what it’s transmitting. If Apple were asked to disclose this information by a government, it could only produce unreadable encrypted data, by design. (This approach is distinct from the way Apple stores even more sensitive data—credit-card numbers, passcodes, and fingerprint or face parameters—in the Secure Enclave of iPhones, iPads, and Macs with T2 chips. That data never even leaves the Secure Enclave, and much of it is stored in the chip already irreversibly transformed through one-way encryption.)

Apple’s iCloud syncing system relies on public-key cryptography, which uses linked pairs of keys: one public and one private. The public key can be shared freely and used by anyone who wants to encrypt material meant for the owner of the private key, who can then decrypt that data. For iCloud Keychain and similar sensitive data, Apple has your devices generate and maintain a set of public and private keys that enable interaction with the information synced across iCloud. The devices never reveal their private keys and have the public keys of all the other devices connected to an iCloud account.

The data protected in this way is stored as individual packages—for example, a URL, account name, and password as a single unit—and identified with random metadata that’s meaningless except to establish a unique ID for each data package. Devices in the user’s sync set, including newly enrolled hardware, sync by exchanging metadata information. Let’s say your iPhone is missing a Web site login you just created on your Mac. The Mac encrypts the login entry with the public key of the iPhone, which receives it via iCloud sync, and then decrypts it with its private key. This approach is both typical and sensible.

The hard part isn’t syncing data privately. Rather, it comes when you want to add a new device to this set. To understand how that works, we need to understand the role of your iCloud password.

An Extra Element to Protect against Interception
Apple’s iOS 12 security white paper explains this system in some depth, noting that your iCloud Apple ID account password by itself can be used to enroll a new device. That isn’t as worrying as it might sound, because Apple doesn’t know your password. Instead, it stores only an encrypted form of the password. Whenever you enter your password, it’s run through a one-way encryption algorithm that performs a vast number of mathematical operations—the process is called “hashing”—that makes it effectively impossible to determine the original password. (This is also used for a lot of data stored in a Secure Enclave, like your passcode.)

You could enable an iCloud Security Code as an “out-of-band” element—something that is never transmitted by the same means as other data. Out-of-band elements are a common way to block data hijacking by requiring a secret that has never been put online. In this case, it’s something you create or Apple creates for you on one device and that you enter on another.

(Never heard of an iCloud Security Code? You’re not alone! It’s barely mentioned on Apple’s site, and Apple’s white paper doesn’t discuss the code deeply. I recall using one years ago, and TidBITS publisher Adam Engst had never heard the term before editing this article.)

But there’s a flaw in both the iCloud password and the iCloud Security Code approaches, and I wonder if that’s why Apple is now asking for passwords or passcodes from other devices in your sync set. The iCloud Security Code is yet another piece of information to remember and deal with and thus runs counter to Apple’s commitment to simplicity. It was also created when iCloud Keychain was the only set of data Apple secured end-to-end and synced via iCloud, and before both two-step verification and the later two-factor authentication for Apple ID. It may not be robust enough to match Apple’s current security and authentication requirements.

As for the iCloud password, it suffers from a different set of concerns. While Apple doesn’t know your iCloud password, whenever you log in at iCloud.com, your encrypted password is sent to Apple, which holds it just long enough to perform the hash and test it against its stored value. However, it’s not inconceivable—though, again, it’s unlikely—that the password could be captured during that transmission, phished, or stolen in some other way. Apple obviously thinks about it in this way: Since it’s conceivable that the password could be intercepted, Apple has to defend against interception as though it happens every day.

Some companies have tried to move away from the need to transfer even a hashed password. AgileBits, for instance, built 1Password.com around newer browser-based encryption algorithms—no unencrypted passwords or data are stored by AgileBits or ever sent to the browser. Instead, the browser itself performs all the necessary encryption and sends the encrypted data to AgileBits. After login, the 1Password.com servers only send encrypted packages to the user’s browser, which holds encryption keys locally and only for the duration of the session.

Apple hasn’t transitioned to this method with iCloud.com, and so it makes sense that instead of relying on an iCloud password, which could be stolen or phished, it has instead moved to this device-passcode/password system. Apple hasn’t yet documented this new approach, which is why I’m not being more precise about how it all works. None of the text on the screen users see appears on Apple’s support or marketing sites, and there’s no mention of the process in the white paper noted above or elsewhere. But I’ve heard about the process previously from readers, Take Control publisher Joe Kissell recently saw it on setting up a new device, and I finally saw it after upgrading to iOS 13 on my iPhone.

Here’s how the new system works, as far as I can determine:
You log into your Apple ID on the device you’re setting up and confirm a second-factor login. (Password-only Apple ID accounts, which Apple strongly discourages and which we recommend against, don’t seem to get these dialogs.)

On at least one of the devices in the iCloud sync set, Apple adds an encrypted version of that device’s passcode or password to the set of shared information. The only information attached to that payload that Apple can read is the type of device and the name of the device.

Apple syncs this information to iCloud, and the setup process on the new device then pulls it down, prompting you to enter the passcode or password.

Once you enter the correct passcode or password, the new device dumps the passcode/password data from the set, instead generating and relying on a new pair of encryption keys, just like the other devices. The new device becomes part of the trusted set of devices that can sync your end-to-end encrypted iCloud data.

It’s possible that Apple retains the encrypted passcode and password of the shared key for every device that’s in the set. However, that would seem to be an ongoing risk, as it would conceivably allow someone who obtains that secret to gain further access.
What this process appears to show is that Apple never sees, handles, or stores your device passcode or password in unencrypted form, and it never passes the passcode or password over anything but secure transport. It requires only your Apple ID account name and password, sent over HTTPS, as the first stage of logging into iCloud, but not for the later stages.

Overall, this new approach seems rational and secure. Apple would do well to give users more confidence in what’s happening by providing an explanatory support document, and I hope Apple will give in-depth details when it updates the iOS security white paper for iOS 13.
If you upgraded to IOS 13, your iPhone just got a major security upgrade. Here are some of the ins and outs.

If you own a relatively new iPhone, this week you should have received a notification that the latest iOS 13 update is ready to download. Besides the more obvious additions—like the introduction of dark mode, and the unexpected joys of Apple Arcade—it also features a raft of security and privacy enhancements.

This is not mean’t to be a tutorial, although some of the screen shots show where to go to make some settings. Here is some information how the latest version of IOS keeps you even more protected.

Sign In With Apple

Photograph: Apple
As well as using Facebook, Google, and Twitter to sign into new apps and services, you can now sign in with Apple too. The option limits data passed over to the third party to your username and email address, and Apple will even create a temporary email address for you if you like—if you start getting unwanted messages, you can just shut it down and walk away.

Fine-Tune Location Controls
You now get more granular control over how apps access to your current location. In addition to being able to grant that permission all the time or only when the app is running, you can now also allow it just once on a temporary basis. The next time the app needs your location, it'll have to ask for it again.
As in iOS 12, you'll get occasional pop-ups reminding you which apps are tracking your location. In iOS 13 though, you can see more of the data that the app actually logs, as well as the app's explanation for why it needs that data in the first place. If you don't buy the argument, you can block access.

Block Bluetooth Access
After you've installed iOS 13, you might see a flurry of apps asking for permission to transmit data over Bluetooth—data that can, in some cases, be used to track where you are, via Bluetooth beacons in stores and elsewhere. If you're not happy with granting permission, turn it off. Note that the permission to able to transfer data over Bluetooth is separate to streaming audio over Bluetooth, so you won't suddenly lose your connection to your headphones.

Stay Safe From Wi-Fi Tracking
As with Bluetooth, in a pre-iOS 13 world some unscrupulous apps were able to track your location without actually asking for permission to do so. Instead, they would take note of the public Wi-Fi networks you passed by. This has now been disabled in iOS 13. There's no option for it or setting to toggle; the privacy feature is baked in automatically.

Share Photos Without Locations


Of course you want to share your photos with friends and family, but maybe you don't want to share your home and office address with everyone you post a picture to. In iOS 13, when you share a picture through the Photos app, you'll notice a new option to strip the location data before you send it.

Silence Unknown Callers

You can, if you want, route calls from unknown numbers straight to voicemail in iOS 13. The feature is a little smarter than you might think , though: A well as checking numbers in your Contacts app, it also looks through Mail and Messages for unsaved numbers that you might be familiar with. Also, when calls are carrier-verified as genuine and not spoofed, you'll see a tick next to the number to let you know it's probably not yet another spammer.

Find Devices Anywhere
You'll notice a new Find My app on your iPhone after you install iOS 13, which helps you keep track of both your friends and your Apple devices, however you've mislaid them. As well as the features you'll already be used to—being able to ring your iPhone remotely, for instance—the new app can even locate your devices when they're not actively connected to Bluetooth or Wi-Fi.



This works via a very low-power Bluetooth signal emitted by your lost device. Apple creates an anonymous, invisible, secure scouting network from all the other Apple devices out there in the wild. If any of these devices detects your phone, you'll get an update on where it is.

Set Permissions for Individual Websites
Safari for iOS 13 now lets you control access to the camera, the microphone, and your current location on a site-by-site basis. If you're happy about some sites getting access to these permissions but not others, you can tailor it to your liking. The feature is managed through the Safari section of Settings. Cross-site tracking, where ad networks can follow you across multiple sites, is now prevented by default too—in iOS 12, it was optional.

Keep Contacts More Private
There's a small but perhaps significant change in the Contacts permission as well. Apps that get access to your list of contacts will no longer be able to read the notes field alongside each contact. If you've used these fields to record sensitive data—like your father's PIN code or your real feelings towards your aunt—third-party apps will no longer be able to view them.

Block VoIP Apps From Collecting Data
In iOS 13, Voice-over-IP apps—those ones that let you make audio and video calls over the web—are no longer able to collect data in the background while they're not running. While this data collection could ostensibly be used to connect calls faster if you didn't have the relevant app open, it was also open to potential abuse. It's expected that apps like WhatsApp and Snapchat will need to be redesigned as a result.

Encrypt HomeKit Video Streams
Part of the reason that there aren't as many devices that work with HomeKit as with, say, Amazon Alexa or Google Assistant, is that Apple has some fairly restrictive rules that manufacturers need to meet. One of those, new in iOS 13, is the requirement that HomeKit-compatible security cameras must encrypt footage before it leaves your home, so no one else can see it.

Put HomeKit on Your Router
Another security feature introduced with HomeKit on iOS 13 is support for HomeKit-enabled routers. When these devices appear on the market, they'll be able to isolate individual smart home devices, so if a malware infection should strike one of them, it won't be able to spread to the others.


If you ever wondered how to take a screenshot on a Mac, here's a comprehensive guide of not only how to do it, but every option available to you from Apple and third-party apps.

We must love our Mac screens. Apple gives us five ways to take screenshots or screen grabs of them, each with options. There are at least as many other third-party apps that will do exactly the same thing.

Or rather, not quite exactly. Each option of Apple's and each third-party app does this grabbing of your screen in slightly different ways. The principle is always the same, but it's the method you use and and precisely what results you get that make the difference.

It makes the difference over whether it's worth paying for an app or just using Apple's built-in options. And it makes a difference, too, over just what you can then use the images for. You'll always be able to take an image and work on it in, say, Photoshop or Pixelmator Pro, but many of the screen grab tools available will let you work directly on the screenshot.

Start with Apple


Apple has long had ways for you to take screenshots on the Mac and only last year added more with the release of macOS Mojave. What it's never done, though, is make it obvious how to take a screenshot on a Mac, which can be frustrating for new users.

You can't use the menus to take a screen grab, you can solely use a keyboard shortcut. That makes perfect sense since a menu would get in the way of your screen shot, but no one could possibly guess that Command-Shift-3 was the keystroke you need.

Screenshot 101


Hold down Command-Shift-3 and, immediately, whatever is on your screen is saved as a PNG file on your desktop. You wanted a screenshot, you've got one, you're done.

Except that this basic Command-Shift-3 keystroke takes a grab of the entire screen when you might want just a portion. It also takes the shot immediately, perhaps before you've got everything ready.

It also briefly puts what Apple calls a floating thumbnail in the bottom right-hand corner of your screen.

This is exactly what you may be used to from taking screen grabs on your iOS device —except it isn't. There's one crucial difference, which is that if you take a second screen shot before the first thumbnail vanishes, your new grab includes it.

On iOS, the system is intelligent enough to ignore the thumbnail and grab whatever is underneath it, but macOS is not.

What's great is that you can circle and annotate anything. What's not so great is that you have to watch you don't accidentally include a thumbnail at bottom right.


Then this basic screen grabbing saves the image to the desktop and you could end up with a lot of those to clear off later. And, just to cap it all, the Command-Shift-3 images will never include your mouse cursor.

So if you're just trying to show someone which tick box to click in, this approach doesn't get you the mouse cursor over the box, it doesn't even get you just the dialog box.

Fortunately, other options can.

Go one better


Press Command-Shift-4 instead, and you get a much different result. As soon as you press those keys, your cursor turns to a crosshair. Click and drag that crosshair over an area you want to take a screen grab of, and as soon as you let go of your mouse or trackpad, that's what you get.

Maybe the most common use for selecting a portion of the screen is when you're trying to take a shot of a single window. It's sufficiently common that Apple has you covered.

Press Command-Shift-4 to get the crosshairs, but this time don't click. Move your mouse cursor over the window you want to grab, and then tap the space bar. The whole window turns a light blue and your cursor becomes an icon of a camera.

Notice the crosshairs at the bottom right of the grey area. We're dragging to select an area we want grabbed.


Click the mouse or press the Return key, and a screen grab of just that window will be saved to your desktop.

If you don't want to clutter up your desktop with screengrabs that you're just making to send to someone and forget about, you don't have to.

This time, press Command-Control-Shift-4. Everything works the same as it does with crosshairs and selecting windows, but instead of saving the PNG file to your desktop, your Mac puts the image into the clipboard. Go into Mail, or any other app, and simply Paste.

So now you can highlight a particular area, make a screen grab, paste it into an email message and move on.

Except you still haven't got that mouse cursor, and you still didn't get that context menu displayed in time.

One more


As of macOS Mojave, you can now press Command-Shift-5 to get screenshots as well. If you only learn one keystroke, this is the one because it gives you all of the various options in one place.

Press that key combination and you get a floating palette of options at the bottom of your screen.

As of macOS Mojave, we get a deeply comprehensive set of screen grab options built in


To the left are options for taking screen grabs. So there's a button for grabbing your whole screen, then next to it one for just grabbing a particular window. Then there's a selection button, with an icon of a square made up of dotted lines, which is how you say you want to drag to select part of the screen.

There are then controls for doing the same with video, taking screen movies of the whole or part of the screen.

Next to those, though, there is a button for Options. In this section, you can change where screenshots are saved, and you can set a timer. Tell your Mac to take a screen grab any time from immediately to five seconds from now. That's how you can press the button and scurry to arrange menus.

Here you'll also find an option called Show Mouse Pointer. Unfortunately, it's not quite what you think or quite what Apple appears to say. It will show the mouse pointer in your screen shot, but solely if that shot is of the entire Mac's window.

If you just want to grab a portion, you can, but you're not getting the mouse cursor showing in it, regardless of what the setting says.

That's annoying, but there's a reason this is an option and not a default. There's even a reason we could believe Apple simply hasn't noticed that Show Mouse Pointer has this limitation. It's that the mouse pointer is not that useful in a still image,

Notice the camera icon. The window selected in blue will be grabbed when you click or hit Return.


Show someone a screen shot of your entire Mac display and they will have trouble finding the cursor. You're much better off marking up your images with annotations.

Marking up


There's one more option in that Command-Shift-5 pallete, and that's Show Floating Thumbnail. This is where you can switch off the thumbnail that appears at the bottom right of your screen, if you want to.

While it's a pain when you're taking a lot of shots and have to wait for the thumbnail to vanish between each one, there's a reason Apple makes this the default. When the thumbnail image appears on your screen, you can click on it to open it up into an editor. Before it's even saved to your desktop, you can edit it.

You can crop the image, rotate it —or annotate any part of it. Right within macOS, you can draw arrows pointing to elements, you can draw ragged circles around them, and you can write text notes.

So you might show someone a dialog box that needs three things to be turned on or off. Point out each part, and you can number them, or you can write 'on' or 'off' right there.

When you're finished, click Done and the image is saved to your desktop.

This does all require you to be fast enough to click on the thumbnail before it vanishes. And it's funny how it feels as if the thumbnail lingers when you don't want it, but races away when you do.

Even if you don't catch it in time, though, you can find the image in the Finder and annotate from there. Either right click on the file, choose Quick Actions and then Markup, or click to select an image, then press the space bar to get a Quick Look.

While Quick Look is on screen, you'll find a Markup button at top right.

There you have it. Now you know how to take a screenshot on a Mac with expert precision.